Other criticism of intellectual property

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Other criticism of intellectual property law concerns the expansion of intellectual property, both in length and in scope. In addition, as scientific knowledge has extended and allowed new industries to occur in fields like biotechnology and nanotechnology, originators of technology have sought IP protection for the new technologies. Patents have been granted for living life forms, and in the United States, certain living life forms have been patentable for over a century. The increase by protection is especially seen in relation to , which has recently been the subject of serial extensions in the United States and in Europe. With no need for registration or notices, this is thought to led to a raise in orphan works copyrighted works for which the owner can not be contacted , a problem that was noticed and addressed by governmental bodies around the globe. Also with respect to , the American film business helped to change the social built of intellectual property via its trade organization, the Motion Picture affiliation of America. In amicus briefs in important cases, in lobbying before Congress, and in its statements to the public, the MPAA advocated strong protection of intellectual property rights. In framing its presentations, the affiliation claimed that people are entitled to the property that's made by their labor. also Congress's awareness of the position of the United States as the world's biggest producer of films made it convenient to develop the conception of intellectual property. These doctrinal reforms have more strengthened the business, lending the MPAA more power and authority.